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Journalist charged under anti-terror law, sent to jail | SC restrains media from airing public comments in sub judice matters | Journalists hold protest rally against attacke on karachi press club | Plain-Clothed Armed Men Entered Into Karachi Press Club, Harass Journalists | 12 armed men attacked at office of a local Newspaper, Beat up its Crime Reporter |


- A journalist should differentiate between publicly important information and information that stirs public interest.

- Information on the private life of an individual may be published only if the behaviour of the person in question, in the private sphere, effects public interest. In such cases, it is necessary to make sure that the publication does not violate the interests of third parties.

- Citizens in a private environment should not be photographed without their consent. Photographs of people going about their daily lives should not be published if the images pose the risk of offending or humiliating them. 

- When covering family conflicts or cases being handled by the courts or other institutions, it is recommended that the names of minors are not mentioned.

- When working in the territory of hospitals or other medical establishments, journalists should obtain permission from the management of these establishments. It should be kept in mind that the information on bodily defects or diseases is, in principle, a private matter.

- When publishing materials on a medical topic, it is necessary to avoid mentioning anything that can instill ungrounded or inappropriate hope for the rapid recovery of the ailing person. On the other hand, one-sided critical publications on the perspectives of curing the illnesses, on which contradictory points of views have been expressed, should not develop a feeling of uncertainty and undermine the possibility of the successful treatment of an ailing patient. The tentative results of scientific research should not be presented as "final or nearly final".

- Victims of violence and incidents should be treated with care. The same applies to witnesses and victims' relatives. Special attention should be paid to selecting photographs and illustrating the details of an accident.

- The coverage of incidents and catastrophes should not disregard the suffering of victims and the feelings of their relatives.

- The effect of a report on a victim or his/her close relatives, in an incident or a crime, must be taken into account. The name of a victim or a missing person should not be disclosed until their relatives are made aware of the case.

- Mass media should not stimulate unhealthy interest in the details of crimes. It is necessary to carefully balance the interest of providing society with information and the interests of the victims or people concerned.

- Victims of accidents and crimes have a right to the special protection of their names. Exceptions are possible when the person in question is either a public figure or if the circumstances specifically relate to him or her.

- Mass media should avoid identifying relatives and friends of suspects or convicts without their consent.

- When a crime is committed by a minor, names and photographs identifying them should not be published unless the offence is of a grave nature. The publication of names and photographs of public servants or figures is only acceptable if there is a connection between them and the crime.

- Journalists are not allowed to publish the names of victims of sexual violence or any details which could result in revealing their identities, unless requested by the victims themselves.

- It is not acceptable to identify under-16 children who are victims or witnesses to sexual crimes.

- Materials on criminal subjects, witnesses or victims belonging to a religious, ethnic or other minority can only be mentioned if there are grounds to believe the information contribute to a better understanding of the described events. This kind of information could result in public bias against these minorities. 

- Investigations and trials should be covered objectively. At all stages, the journalist should comprehensively cover all points of view from all sides. This should apply to the criminal process, and accordingly, the position of the prosecution and defence.

- Information on the suspect's family, his/her occupation, religious background, nationality, race or membership of an organisation should be published only if it is directly relevant to the case.

- Information that can damage the course of the trial should not be published until the verdict is announced and the case is closed.

- Journalists should not mention the names of people who committed minor crimes and were punished with light sentences. An exception to this rule is when such a crime is committed by a public figure.

- The journalist should not mention the crime committed by a person if the individual has already been punished for it. This rule does not apply to cases of a clear second criminal offence or when the person continues activities related to the original offence.